PHP Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.

Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.

Example Name Result
-$a Negation Opposite of $a.
$a + $b Addition Sum of $a and $b.
$a – $b Subtraction Difference of $a and $b.
$a * $b Multiplication Product of $a and $b.
$a / $b Division Quotient of $a and $b.
$a % $b Modulus Remainder of $a divided by $b.

Assignment Operators

The basic assignment operator in PHP is “=”. It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.

Assignment Same as… Description
x = y x = y Set the value of Y to X
x += y x = x + y Addition
x -= y x = x – y Subtraction
x *= y x = x * y Multiplication
x /= y x = x / y Division
x %= y x = x % y Modulus

Comparison Operators

The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):

Operator Name Example Result
== Equal $x == $y Returns true if $x is equal to $y
=== Identical $x === $y value and datatype
!= Not equal $x != $y $x is not equal to $y
<> Not equal $x <> $y $x is not equal to $y
!== Not identical $x !== $y $x is not equal to $y or not equal datatype
> Greater than $x > $y $x is greater than $y
< Less than $x < $y $x is less than $y
>= Greater than or equal to $x >= $y $x is greater than or equal to $y
<= Less than or equal to $x <= $y $x is less than or equal to $y

Increment / Decrement Operators

The PHP increment operators are used to increment a variable’s value.
The PHP decrement operators are used to decrement a variable’s value.

Operator Name Description
++$x Pre-increment Increments $x by one, then returns $x
$x++ Post-increment Returns $x, then increments $x by one
–$x Pre-decrement Decrements $x by one, then returns $x
$x– Post-decrement Returns $x, then decrements $x by one

Logical Operators

The PHP logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

Operator Name Example Result
and And $x and $y True if both $x and $y are true
or Or $x or $y True if either $x or $y is true
xor Xor $x xor $y True if either $x or $y is true, but not both
&& And $x && $y True if both $x and $y are true
|| Or $x || $y True if either $x or $y is true
! Not !$x True if $x is not true

String Operators

PHP has two operators that are specially designed for strings.

Operator Name Example Result
. Concatenation $txt1 . $txt2 Concatenation of $txt1 and $txt2
.= Concatenation assignment $txt1 .= $txt2 Appends $txt2 to $txt1